State Agency of Water Resources of Ukraine
Keywords: water monitoring, water bodies, water management systems, ecological condition, biological research methods, water quality indicators, boundary permissible concentration
The current state of the water monitoring system is analyzed, the main tasks of monitoring are determined. Methods of obtaining information about the state of water resources are studied. The subjects of monitoring on water bodies and hydro-economic systems have been identified. It has been established that the monitoring system is significantly branched and separate from each subject of monitoring, and water monitoring programs differ from each other and are often duplicated. Given the current changes in Ukraine's integration into the European Union, an analysis of the adaptation of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC to national water monitoring programs has been performed. For surface waters, monitoring programs should cover the following characteristics: biological parameters, chemical and physicochemical parameters, hydrological regime and morphological conditions, as well as specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. It also determines which indicators or groups of water quality indicators should be measured for each type of water bodies, this characteristic of the criteria for determining the ecological status of waters by physicochemical, hydrobiological and hydromorphological indicators of water quality. The characteristics of diagnostic, operational and research monitoring programs are given. The main difference of the perspective monitoring system is the transition from chemical to biological control based on biological indication. Expeditionary studies of the ecological status of surface water bodies in the Siversky Donets River basin showed a good correlation between the results of biological and physicochemical assessment of surface water quality, which indicates the practical applicability of biological methods in determining the ecological status of water bodies. The development of new water monitoring programs taking into account modern requirements is not only a prerequisite for full monitoring of surface water bodies and hydro-economic systems, but also has a significant role in justifying water protection measures and preventing technogenic and natural emergency situations.
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